Causes of Human Trafficking
Human trafficking can be explained into two major causes such as local causes and international causes. In the area of local factors, abject poverty especially among women, a lack of political, social and economical stability are the few factors in the area of local factors. Besides that, a lack of reasonable and realistic prospects, situations of armed conflict and oppression, domestic violence and disintegration of the family structure also the other factors in local factors. Moreover, gender discrimination, lack of access to education and information and the HIV-AIDS reality can be explained into local factors. Lack of access to education and information is when the individual not concerns about how important other human beings to another. Gender discrimination is also the causes that make another gender that is male or female to be stressed out with the situation that happens among them. Domestic violence and disintegration of the family structure can be explained when the problems occur in community give a problem to another human beings and family members have to show more love and alert about their children.
Universal factors such as even more limits and obstacles to legal migration channels to countries with stronger economies and regions with better prospects, a lack of public awareness of the dangers of trafficking, the high profit potential for those engaged in the criminal activity, the sophisticated organisation, resources and networking capacity of criminal networks, a lack of effective anti-trafficking legislation, and if such legislation exists, a lack of effective enforcement, global economic policies that foster exclusion of marginalised people, disintegration of social protection networks, widespread corruption in countries of origin, of transit and of destination among the persons capable or responsible to combat trafficking. A lack of effective anti-trafficking legislation is one of the important factors because a good system should be provided by government to overcome this human trafficking to be happened. Besides that, a lack of effective enforcement by the authority gives us a major problems and this will not give a full stop to this problems. Government and the society should be united to solve this sophistic issue.
There are few countries that we can take an example of the issue of human trafficking such as in Burma. The military junta’s gross economic mismanagement, human rights abuses, and its policy of using forced labour are the top causal factors for Burma’s significant trafficking problem. The official ban on overland emigration of most young women drives some seeking to leave the country into the hands of “travel facilitators,” who may have ties with traffickers. Besides that, the lacks of job opportunities and higher incomes have also pushed Burmese to migrate into one of its five neighbouring countries. This situation has created an opportunity for traffickers to lure the victims to other countries with false premises.
Malaysia is a destination country for a significant number of men women, and children who are trafficked from Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Cambodia, Vietnam, Burma, and the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.), India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Pakistan for sexual and labour exploitation. Many victims voluntarily migrate to Malaysia to work in factories, construction and agricultural sectors, or as domestic servants, but are later coerced into debt bondage or involuntary servitude. The Malaysian NGO, Tenaganita reported that 65 percent of the trafficking victims in Malaysia are for forced labour.
In Indonesia, UNICEF argues that the lack of birth registration increases the vulnerability to trafficking. About 60 percent of children who are under five years old do not have birth certificates; about half are not registered anywhere.